Leading us into Truth and Light, Diwali is
celebrated on a nation-wide scale on Naraka Chathurthasi day on the dawn
of Ammavaasa during the Hindu month of Aippasi (September/October)
every year. It symbolizes the age-old culture of our country which
teaches us to vanquish ignorance that subdues humanity and to drive away
darkness that engulfs the light of knowledge. Diwali,
the festival of lights even today in this modern world projects the
rich and glorious past of our country and teaches us to uphold the true
values of life.
"Diwali" is the easy-to-pronounce form of Deepavalai. In Sanskrit "Deepawali" is the marriage of two Sanskrit words- Deepa meaning light and Avali, meaning a row. Indeed celebrating the row of lights
forms one of Diwali's main attraction. Every home - huts of the poor to
the mansions of the rich are aglow with the orange glow of twinkling
diyas. Lighting these small earthen lamps welcome Lakshmi, the Goddess
of wealth and prosperity. Multi-colored Rangoli designs, floral
decorations and fireworks lend vivid, colorful imagery and grandeur to
this festival which heralds joy, mirth and happiness in the ensuring
This festival is celebrated on a grand scale in almost all the regions of India and is looked upon in some parts of India
as the beginning of New Calendar or Financial Year. For those who
believe Diwali begins a new financial year tidy up their accounts and
are much more apt to hold grand pujas and devotional displays for
Goddess Lakshmi. As such the blessings of Lakshmi, the celestial consort
of Lord Vishnu are invoked with prayers. Even countries like Kenya, Thailand, Trinidad, Siam and Malaya celebrate this festival but in their own ways.
This Diwali festival, it is surmised dates back to that period when
perhaps history was not written, and in its progress through centuries
it lighted path of thousands to attain the ultimate good and complete
ecstasy. Diwali is very enthusiastically celebrated for five continuous
days and each day has its significance with a number of myths, legends
Day 1: Dhanteras
The first day is called Dhanteras or Dhantrayodashi
which falls on the thirteenth day of the month of Kartik. The word
"Dhan" means wealth. As such this day of the five-day Diwali festival
has a great importance for the rich mercantile community of Western India.
Houses and business premises are renovated and decorated. Entrances are
made colorful with lovely traditional motifs of Rangoli designs to
welcome the Goddess of wealth and prosperity. To indicate her
long-awaited arrival, small footprints are drawn with rice flour and
vermilion powder all over the houses. Lamps are kept burning all through
the nights. Believing this day to be auspicious women purchase some
gold or silver or at least one or two new utensils. "Lakshmi-Puja" is
performed in the evenings when tiny diyas of clay are lighted to drive
away the shadows of evil spirits. "Bhajans"-devotional songs- in praise
of Goddess Lakshmi are sung and "Naivedya" of traditional sweets is
offered to the Goddess. There is a peculiar custom in Maharashtra to lightly pound dry coriander seeds with jaggery and offer as Naivedya.
In villages cattles are adorned and worshiped by farmers as they form the main source of their income. In South India
cows are offered special veneration as they are supposed to be the
incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi and therefore they are adorned and
worshipped on this day.
A very interesting story about this day is of the sixteen year old son
of King Hima. As per his horoscope he was doomed to die by a snake-bite
on the fourth day of his marriage. On that particular fourth day of his
marriage his young wife did not allow him to sleep. She laid all the
ornaments and lots of gold and silver coins in a big heap at the
entrance of her husband's boudoir and lighted innumerable lamps all over
the place. And she went on telling stories and singing songs. When Yama
the god of Death arrived there in the guise of a serpent his eyes were
suddenly blinded by the dazzle of those brilliant lights and he could
not enter the Prince's chamber. So he climbed on top of the heap of the
ornaments and coins and sat there whole night listening to the melodious
songs. In the morning he quietly went away.
Thus the young wife saved her husband from the clutches of death. Since
then this day of Dhanteras came to be known as the day of Yamadeepdaan and lamps are kept burning throughout the night in reverential adoration to Yama, the god of Death.
Day 2: Nakra-Chaturdashi
The second day is called Nakra-Chaturdashi or Choti Diwali falls on the fourteenth day of the month of Kartik. It is on this day that Lord Krishna returns from Pragyotishpur (Nepal)
completing a journey where he killed the demon king Narakasur, freed
16,000 daughters of the gods in the king's harem and reclaimed the
Mother Goddess, Aditi's earrings. To prove he was victorious in killing
the demon, Lord Krishna returned home with the king's blood smeared on
his forehead. To cleanse the blood and restore overall cleanliness, the
womenfolk bathed the Lord in scented oils. Since then, the custom of
taking bath before sunrise is customary in various parts of India, including Maharashtra.
In South India that victory of the
divine over the mundane is celebrated in a very peculiar way. To
re-enact the victory of Lord Krishna some believers will break melons on
the door step of their homes, representing the head of the demon King.
After smashing the melon, people will smear their foreheads with a
mixture of kumkum powder and oil, which represents the blood Lord
Krishna smeared on his head. Continuing this ritual, many more,
including those who do not break melons, will take an oil bath using
sesame (gingerly) oil with cumin seeds and peppercorns, following up
with a more modern water and soap bath to restore moisture and a sweet
smell to the body.
In Maharashtra also, traditional early
baths with oil and "Uptan" (paste) of gram flour and fragrant powders
are a must. All through the ritual of baths, deafening sounds of
crackers and fireworks are there in order that the children enjoy
bathing. Afterwards steamed vermicelli with milk and sugar or puffed
rice with curd is served.
On Nakra-Chaturdashi day, people dedicate themselves to
lighting lamps and praying. On this day, people believe that the
lighting of lamps expels ignorance and heralds a future full of joy and
laughter. The story behind this holiday tradition revolves around King
Bali of the nether world. His mighty power had become a threat to the
gods. In order to curb his powers Lord Vishnu in the guise of a small
boy (batu waman) visited him and begged him to give him as much land as
he could cover with his three steps. Known for his philanthropy, King
Bali proudly granted him his wish. That very moment that small boy
transformed himself into the all-powerful Lord Vishnu. With his first
step Lord Vishnu covered the entire heaven and with the second step he
covered the earth. Before taking the third and final step, Lord Vishnu
asked Bali where he should make his third step. Bali
offered his head. Putting his foot on his head, Vishnu pushed him down
to the underworld. At the same time for his generosity Lord Vishnu gave
him the lamp of knowledge and allowed him to return to earth once a year
to light millions of lamps to dispel the darkness and ignorance and
spread the radiance of love and wisdom.
Day 3: Lakshmi Puja
The third day of the festival of Diwali is the most important day of
Lakshmi Puja which is entirely devoted to the propitiation of Goddess
Lakshmi. This day is also known by the name of Chopada Puja. On
this very day sun enters the second course and passes Libra which is
represented by the balance or scale. Hence, this design of Libra is
believed to have suggested the balancing of account books and their
closing. Despite the fact that this day falls on an amavasya day it is
regarded as the most auspicious.
The day of Lakshmi Puja falls on the dark night of Amavasya. The strains
of joyous sounds of bells and drums float from the temples as man is
invoking Goddess Lakshmi in a wondrous holy "pouring-in" of his heart.
All of a sudden that impenetrable darkness is pierced by innumerable
rays of light for just a moment and the next moment a blaze of light
descends down to earth from heaven as golden-footed Deep-Lakshmi alights
on earth in all her celestial glory amidst chanting of Vedic hymns. A
living luminance of Universal Motherhood envelopes the entire world in
that blessed moment of fulfillment of a long-awaited dream of the
mortal. A sublime light of knowledge dawns upon humanity and devotion of
man finally conquers ignorance. This self enlightenment is expressed
through the twinkling lamps that illuminate the palaces of the wealthy
as well as the abodes of the poor. It is believed that on this day
Lakshmi walks through the green fields and loiters through the bye-lanes
and showers her blessings on man for plenty and prosperity. When the
sun sets in the evening and ceremonial worship is finished all the
homemade sweets are offered to the goddess as naivedya and distributed as prasad (prasadam).
Feasts are arranged and gifts are exchanged. On this day gaily dressed
men, women and children go to temples and fairs, visit friends and
One of the most curious customs which characterizes this festival of
Diwali is the indulgence of gambling, especially on a large scale in North India.
It is believed that goddess Parvati played dice with her husband, Lord
Shiv on this day and she decreed that whosoever gambled on Diwali night
would prosper throughout the ensuring year. This tradition of playing
cards- flush and rummy with stakes on this particular day continues even
On this Diwali day, we
light lamps to commemorate the sacred memories of those great men who
lived to brighten the lives of millions of their fellow beings:
● Lord Shri Krishna
around whom revolved the entire story of our great epic Mahabharat and
the philosopher, who preached Karmayog through his Geeta to Arjun on the
battlefield of Kurukshetra, discarded his body.
● Bhagwan, Mahavir, the Jain prophet also attained nirvana on this day.
● Swami Ramtirth, the beloved "Ram Badshah" of millions of Indians was not only born on this day and took both sanyas and samadhi on this day.
● Swami Dayanand Saraswati, founder of Arya Samaj in 1875 in Mumbai,
with his superb yogic powers freed his soul from his body and mingled
with divinity on this auspicious day of Diwali.
Another very interesting story about this Diwali day is from the
Kathopanishad. In this story, a small boy called Nichiketa believed that
Yam, the god of Death was as black as the dark night of amavasya. But
when he met Yam in person he was puzzled seeing Yam's calm countenance
and dignified stature. Yam explained to Nichiketa on this Diwali day of
amavasya that by only passing through the darkness of death, man sees
the light of highest wisdom. It is only then only his soul can escape
from the bondage of his mortal frame to mingle with the Supreme Power.
It was then that Nichiketa realized the importance of worldly life and
significance of death. All of Nichiketa's doubts were set to rest and he
whole-heartedly participated in Diwali celebrations.
Day 4: Padwa or Varshapratipada
It is the fourth day that marks the coronation of King Vikramaditya, initiating Vikram-Samvat from this Padwa day.
Govardhan-Puja is also performed in the North on this day. As per
Vishnu-Puran the people of Gokul used to celebrate a festival in honor
of Lord Indira, worshiping him after the end of every monsoon season.
However, one particular year the young Krishna
stopped them from offering prayers to Lord Indira. This angered Lord
Indira, who responded by submerging Gokul underwater. Krishna saved
Gokul by lifting up the Govardhan Mountain and holding it over the people as an umbrella. To commemorate this day, people of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar build cow dung hillocks, decorate them with flowers and then worship them.
On this day in the temples of Mathura
and Nathadwara, the deities are given milk bath, dressed in shining
attires with ornaments of dazzling diamonds, pearls, rubies and other
precious stones. After the prayers are offered, the innumerable
varieties of delicious sweets are ceremoniously raised in the form of a
mountain (known as Annakoot) before the deities as bhog. Only after this offering, devotees take prasad from the bhog.
Goddess Lakshmi is worshipped in every Hindu household and her blessings
sought for success and happiness. This day is looked upon as the most
auspicious day to start any new venture. In many Hindu homes it is a
custom for the wife to put the red tilak on the forehead of her husband,
garland him and do his aarthi with a prayer for his long life.
In appreciation of all the tender care that the wife showers on him,
the husband gives her a costly gift. This Gudi Padwa is
symbolic of love and devotion between the wife and husband. On this day
newly-married daughters with their husbands are invited for special
meals and given presents. In olden days brothers went to fetch their
sisters from their in-laws home for this important day.
Day 5: Bhayya- Duj
The fifth and final day of Diwali is known as Bhayya-Duj. It is also known in Hindi as Bhav-Bij and in Marathi and Nepalese as Bhai Tika.
Legend says Yamraj, the
God of Death visited his sister Yami on this particular day. She put
the auspicious tilak on his forehead, garlanded him and fed him with
special dishes. Together, they ate the sweets, talked and enjoyed
themselves to their heart's content. While parting Yamraj gave her a
special gift as a token of his love and in return Yami also gave him a
lovely gift which she had made with her own hands. That day Yamraj
announced that anyone who receives tilak from his sister will never be
thrown. That is why this day of Bhayyaduj is also known by the name of Yama Dwitiya.
Since then this day is being observed
as a symbol of love between sisters and brothers. It became also
imperative for the brother to go to his sister's house to celebrate
Summing Up Diwali
In today's world when pressing everyday problems are teaming as under
all the tender words of personal relationships, the celebrating of this
day has its own importance in continuing to maintain the love between
brothers and sister. It is the day of food-sharing; gift-giving and
reaching out to the inner most depths of the hearts.
Diwali on the whole has always been the festival with more social than
religious connotations. It is a personal, people-oriented festival when
enmities are forgotten; families and friends meet, enjoy and establish a
word of closeness.
As a festival of light and beauty it encourages artistic expressions
through home-decorations stage-plays, elocution competitions singing and
dancing programs, making gift items and delectable sweets thereby
discovering new talents of younger people. As a result innumerable
communities with varying cultures and customs mingle together to make
Diwali celebrations a very happy occasion for all.
Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore has communicated the true significance of
Diwali in one beautiful line: "The night is black. Kindle the lamp of love with thy life and devotion."